Average Cost of College Statistics by Type. The following is the average cost-of-attendance for the 2017-18 school year by school type including tuition & fees, room & board, books & supplies, transportation, and any other expenses. The \(z\) test statistic found in Step 2 is used to determine the \(p\) value. The \(p\) value is the proportion of the \(z\) distribution (normal distribution with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1) that is more extreme than the test statistic in the direction of the alternative hypothesis. The goal of this unit is to calculate baseball statistics or to show you the relationship between baseball and math. Baseball is probably America's favorite game. You will hear baseball fans talking about a pitcher's ERA, a hitter's batting average, and some other important statistics in baseball.